The International Hunt for Dark Energy Is On, Here’s What’s Coming
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The International Hunt for Dark Energy Is On, Here’s What’s Coming

November 18, 2019

We’re living in this time where most of the
matter is dark. We’re not actually seeing it. And most of what we call the energy density
of the universe appears to be dark as well. So, we’re in what I like to call this period
of maximum ignorance right now, where we’ve learned a ton about all of the normal matter
of the universe everything that makes you and the Earth and the Sun. But, what we know
today is that’s only less than 5% of the universe. And then, the other 95%, we don’t know. The
majority of that 95% is dark energy, a mysterious force that’s expanding the universe faster
and faster. Cosmologists from around the world are unsure why this acceleration is
happening. That’s why in the absence of data, an international team of scientists
and engineers are building a dark energy hunting machine to probe the far reaches of the universe
to a point in spacetime few have ever seen. So we call it dark energy because we don’t know
what it is. We can detect it through other measurements, but we can’t observe it directly.
Scientists first became aware of dark energy in the late 1990’s after two independent
teams of astrophysicists were racing to determine the rate at which the universe was expanding. Both
teams expected to see the expansion slowing down, due to the long established theory that
the attractive force of gravity was pulling the universe together. However, they observed
something completely unexpected. The expansion of the cosmos was speeding up, not slowing
down, meaning that there must be something like the appearance of an anti-gravitational
force at play. We looked at that as like, Oh, yeah. That’s weird. That can’t possibly
be right. They must have done something wrong. So, it seemed pretty easy to dismiss it at
the time. But with further experiments and observations, the initial findings continued
to hold up. In fact, those original papers from 1998 and 1999, they knew what they were
doing. They got it exactly right. This repulsive force which we now call ‘dark energy’,
is something that still perplexes us. It’s easier to say what we do know about dark energy
than what we don’t know. So, what we do know is that in the early universe, it was not
very important. But, at some point between six or seven and eight billion years after
the Big Bang until today dark energy became the dominant force affecting what’s happening
to the universe as a whole. We know it’s not a particle because if it were caused by some
particle, there would be other manifestations of it. So, it appears to be something like
a force. And at the moment, it’s a very data-starved discussion. Every week it seems, there are
new theories coming out. Some of them having to do with this modification of our laws of
gravity. Some having to do with introducing new forces in the universe that would be a
dark energy force or forces. And then, there are other even grander ideas about additional
dimensions in the universe effectively leaking in on the four dimensional space that we see
and exerting this force on our space. One of the first next big experiments to really
measure this at this precision level is the DESI experiment. DESI is a fiber optic spectrograph
that will construct a 3D map of the universe, tracing close to 12 billion years of cosmic
history. This engineering marvel is being mounted onto a telescope in Arizona where
it will measure the spectra of more than 35 million galaxies to observe dark energy’s
effect on a much grander scale. We’re using new classes of optical designs to get
these large fields of view. A big part of the DESI project was making this beast that
we call the optical corrector that’s really glasses on the top of the telescope. It’s
a set of six lenses where the largest lens is 1.1 meters in diameter. And all of these
lenses are polished to a precision. Okay so check, we’ve done that, big field of view. The
next challenge was figuring out how to catch the light of multiple galaxies at the same
time. We have a lot more fibers. We have 5,000 fibers and we also have a really quickly
reconfigurable focal plane. Each robot can move individually, so we can reposition every
single fiber at the same time. So we cut down the time between observations from a
few hours down to three minutes. Which means with each fiber aimed at the sky. We can map
5,000 galaxies every 15 minutes. The main goal of the fiber system is to preserve the
quality of light that the telescope delivers. You know, these photons have spent billions
of years reaching us. We do everything possible within that fiber system
to deliver the light to the spectrograph without degrading it. The spectrograph is 10 identical
units that fill an entire room. DESI is nearing completion of its installation phase and gearing up to scan the skies. We have the focal plane installed, and then after the focal plane
is safe to operate, then we install the fiber cables to the slits. We’ll make a precision
map of the geometry of the universe from the distance of about seven billion light years
to about 10 or 11 billion light years. And so this is the phase of history of the universe
where dark energy turned on. Where it became the dominant force in the universe. So, to
construct a 3D map and understand dark energy’s role, DESI will first need to look at a unique
cosmological effect. The universe did deliver a specific feature that we can latch onto
and that’s this baryon acoustic oscillation feature. When the universe went through this
specific transition where it was a plasma of very hot ions and then cooled off it was
383,000 years after the big bang, right at that time there were sound waves propagating
in the universe that got frozen in. Mapping those soundwaves with DESI will give scientists a sense of the distribution of the galaxies and scale of the universe. But BAO’s don’t
give us the whole picture. In this age of accelerated expansion, galaxies are moving
away from us, so scientists need to measure how fast they’re traveling. Fortunately,
galaxies leave a clue behind: their light waves. These waves are stretched to redder
and redder wavelengths, which is called their redshift. By knowing a galaxy’s redshift,
scientists can tell how far away it is and turn our view of the sky into a 3D map. In
the first year of operations starting in 2020 we’ll actually have a larger map of the
universe than all of humanity before us. So we’ll be able to verify what our understanding
of dark energy is today, geometry at a few different epochs, how dark matter is pushing
around these galaxies. That’s what we’ll see after the first year. Then it’ll be the subsequent
years where we’ll have a large enough map that it’ll really be the new discovery potential for dark energy. These cosmic map makers are charting the open sky, uncertain of what they’ll eventually find. But diving into the unknown is just part of the job. What
they learn in the end will only expand our knowledge of the universe, and our small place
in it. The better we understand dark energy, the better we understand how the universe
is going to evolve and we learn what’s going to happen to the universe in the end. What
I can tell you is that these will be the best data that we have once we complete this map,
and it will certainly rule out many, many potential models for dark energy. It’ll be very interesting to see what’s left on the table after that.

Only registered users can comment.

  1. Maybe our galaxy is being pulled towards a supermassive black hole one that big no one could really see it, could this explain why the universe is expanding??

  2. Have fun wasting money. Last time we ever invent some mental bender physics to explain what we find. It's plasma.

  3. We haven’t even finished exploring who we are and what we are. People just accept that you go from a joyful, courageous, imaginative kid into a miserabke adult full of anxiety and worry. We need to go back to really get back on track.

  4. in the islamic religion , koran said that each planet is "swiming in its own orbit" swimming in the dark matter
    "It is not for the sun to overtake the moon , nor doth the night outstrip the dayThey float each in an orbit"
    they will never find out what that matter is , since its the soul matter ; the god's breath

  5. When a scientist says, 'we don't know'. I just imagine Christians jumping in and going, "see! God does exist". Hahahah. I can't help it.

  6. Why not to search an answer from the Bible. There is a good explanation for "dark energy", which isn't as dark than our sinful nature wants us to believe. There are so many questions which are out of our understanding. It means that we are wasting our own energy to search something which is pretty obvious. Of course when you have learned lies about evolution and so on that God doesn't exist, it's hard to find the Truth which is out there. Not physically in this universe anymore, but sitting next to our Creator Holy God. So instead of searching that dark energy, read the Bible and search the Kingdom of Heaven and let Jesus Christ be your Savior. Then you can find peace, purpose and real meaning to your life.

  7. From what I've learned, the universe's acceleration began expanding about 6 billion years ago. On higher energy states, the fundamental forces can be explained as one force (e.g. electroweak force, grand unified energy (weak-strong-electromagnetic), and theory of everything (weak-strong-electro-gravity), and then the energy equivalent to the big bang). So, this means that as the universe expanded and cooled as particles moved further away before interacting, the fundamental forces and particles began to have intrinsic characteristics and became different from other forces, at least based on what we have observed. Could this mean that the Dark Energy is a fifth force that also distinguished itself sometime 6 billion years ago?

  8. I wish it wasnt called 'dark'. The name feeds into conspiracy freaks and 'magic' beliefs. Better to call it mystery or not-yet-known.

  9. So, rather than to admit that the Big Bang is yet another failure in their anti-God theorizations, they are now moving toward anti-gravity….dark energy….never even trying to explain how the matter in the universe supposedly had compressed down into a singular point in order to explode outward in the alleged Big Bang, only to THEN accelerate because of the elusive (probably non-existent) dark energy and dark matter? Come on! If only they had asked me what was the cause, I could have saved them all the wasted money chasing non-existent bunnies down all the rabbit holes.

  10. Groups of galaxies are all strung together by berklin currents. "Dark matter" is low energy plasma. Stars are born in berklin currents and when a z pinch acures a star is formed. It's not how you find it, it's what exactly to look for. Best of luck, I hope we will find the answer one day.

  11. lol, the more we learn the less we know~~~~~~~~~ someone said that He would confuse the intelligence of the intelligent.!

  12. Is this from like 10 years ago? Scientists have found the missing matter. It's dust. It's just a case of the majority of our equipment is not sensitive enough to "see" it. They have spent billions and billions of dollars on multiple projects to verify that the missing matter is not imaginary and they should stop making mystery particles up and do some actual science.

  13. Any Idea where I can download High quality space renderings like the ones In this video?? I would love to have them play on repeat as my desktop screensaver

  14. All this dark matter talk and saying the earth is round and not flat and gravity exists is so annoying why can’t people accept that these are all theories and that they are fake. The earth is flat and that’s a fact, the moon landing was faked and that’s a fact… don’t get fooled by the media, have a good day.

  15. Did anyone try to see it through the eyes of a mantis shrimp there's a possibility that it can't be seen with the human or it may so small small than we could imagine or another possibility it doesn't exist 3rd dimensionally last but not least that the dark energy is propelling its self

    Our physics are also human created a dog does even know it exits so any error that defies or breaks the laws of physics

  16. Very foolish in a way sad look at anything in the night sky, light is the only energy everyone knows about and can see common knowledge, yet you claim to be looking for the boogie man something not there and arrogant about it, less coffee, more exercise ,quit drinking and don't take grandmas medication

  17. We understand our universe more and more each day only to become baffled by new mysteries and observations that leave us further behind than where we originally started.

    There is one ultimate secret of the universe that we can all be positively sure of. At some point in time uncomprehendingly far from now, all life across the cosmos will cease to exist as the knowledge and understanding that we have acquired in the human race withers in the dead and dark state of stillness. Entropy has done its promise. Order has become disordered to a point of no return. Nothing IS and Nothing will BE. Absolutely Nothing…

    So with that being said, enjoy life. Enjoy your days, for the universe wants you to do so. Nature fully understands the truth of the universe, for it does not worry. It simply lives. So don’t worry, be happy.

  18. Dark energy has always tripped me out
    Found the Higgs Boson God Particle; hopefully we can find out what dark energy is in our lifetime as well

  19. So dark energi is make universe expand faster
    What if we in simulated reality and expand faster because the computers that run our simulation being upgrade thus make prosesing faster .and make universe expand faster

  20. So basically the robots embedded into the lens catch the photon rays emitted from galaxies and by processing the color it can map how far away it is? Also this is very cool because after collecting sufficient data they might be able to locate the central area where the expansion began from. I wonder how the robots can distinguish galaxies from stars and wether that would affect their data. They should make an online platform of the map once the data is presentable so everyone can view it!!

  21. According to alcubierre, if we find dark energy, making a warp drive becomes a possibility.
    gosh, we will be miserable in multiple galaxys if that happens.

  22. Ever changing, it is. The force of Dark Energy. The Cosmic Divide. The Separation of Time itself!
    Everything began in darkness. No matter what shape or form, DARKNESS is the true essences of all things in existence and non-existence!

    Before the universe there was only darkness, the universe is the LIGHT!
    Light is born from darkness.
    Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Melanin, Black Soil, Black Holes, Below Zero Degrees etc.
    Everything begin in darkness and everything shall END in darkness!
    YES! Everything come from one single source and that's DARKNESS! There are multiple realities with no universe just like this reality was, over 15 billion years ago with no universe. DARKNESS can and always have existed with no LIGHT, but Light can never exist without DARKNESS!

  23. So much bullsh.. Dark energy,no suprise we can came up with sh1. like this,the same sh1. A.Enstein is genius,at start it was funny,but now its phatetic..

  24. I am just curious, whether how dark matter will expand the universe, or is the universe really expanding, if it is, what components is in dark matter to make it expand. truly, truly, mysterious, i hope future generations will find out. #unsolved.

  25. dark energy is not a particle hence no mass. but its able to push away particle and the universe. light able to travel through dark matter but not sound wave. maybe its a new kind of element.

  26. In order for the Big Bang to be true. Dark matter and dark energy would have to exsist. Because the accelerating expansion of the universe is not consistent with an "extraordinary creative Explosion". Neither is the fact that planets and stars orbit and spin in a number of different directions. But one thing at a time.

  27. Uh no. You have math models based on red-shifting of stars that infers the universe is expanding with acceleration and galaxies are spinning so fast as to blow apart, and so to account for all that, you have dark energy and dark matter, respectively. This means the hunt is on for them. Or is means your math is shit and red-shifting is a complex function on an astronomical scale with many things affecting it so your red-shift data may be garbage, nothing is going on and the dark things do not exist. I predict that dark matter and dark energy will never be found. Hundreds of billions in research so far for them, and zero.

  28. I think we will find out that most life in the universe is made of dark matter/energy and that life in our spectrum is an anomaly.

  29. Dark matter/energy is a theoretical mathematical construct inserted into large equations made up of other theoretical mathematical constructs that attempt to define our reality. The equations march along until they don't work anymore, a theoretical constant is inserted to fill the knowledge gap, and a process of proof occurs. There's no proof of dark matter/energy's existence, hence all the years of experiments trying to find it. This is how science works – it's an iterative process of hypotheses, theories, and experiments trying to prove those theories. That process is important because from it other potential discoveries are made. Discoveries that might be the progenitors of entirely new branches of science. However, when does the larger scientific community acknowledge that they may need to scrap the direction their going in, scrap the past decades hunt for dark matter, and start further back down the line of equations or start at a different origin/jumping off point (i.e. start at laws, not theories) all together? How long will the hunt for dark matter/energy continue?

  30. Gravitational Time Dilation, measured over time, creates areas that lag behind in time (and date) around massive objects compared to far off empty space. This creates the illusion of dark matter due to the lower energy potential of "time wells" around massive objects. Conversely, empty space is flowing ahead in time compared to space around a massive object, creating a positive potential energy compared to the "lower potential energy" of "time wells" around massive objects. Dark Matter and Dark Energy are just seeing the same effect from 2 different viewpoints, effects of a "time well" around massive objects or far outside any influence of a "time well". time-factor-theory website.

  31. Darn energy is just the invisible vibrations that scientific equipment cannot detect. There are no invisible material things. It's all nothing but invisible vibrations called God's consciousness. Those vibrations carry all the information that gives us our thoughts and visible worlds. There are no material things and never will be.

  32. Our universe is getting stretched while the universe beside us is getting crushed! Eventually it will cause a Big Bang and than our universe will get crushed and a new Big Bang will occur again! Like bubbles

  33. Holy fucken shit guys. If the known universe keeps expanding, it could eventually rip and…. Possibly…. We're all fucked and blinked out of existence LMAO

  34. so why is everything moving away from us if we exploded with the big bang? Arent we supposed to move with it?
    And how can you really measure so much with the red shift? How do you really track billions of light years that far away?

  35. go VR!)) графон крутой в фильме, но мне чето с трудом верится в всю эту чепуху про черные материи и смещение спектра галактик, что это типа значит что она удаляется быстрее… ебала какая то…

  36. I think our galaxy is inside of another Galaxy inside of another galaxy. And that galaxy is in a box on a desk of a scientist. Our world is quantum to them.

  37. The newest cyclic model accounts for dark matter and energy, avoids a singularity, avoids boltzmann brains, avoids the multiverse, and accounts for thermodynamics in an eternal universe.

  38. You are wrong.
    Dark matter and dark energy do not exist.
    Only one scientist found the truth.
    The Janus theory of Jean-Pierre Petit explains correctly every thing including the expansion acceleration, lens effect, 95% of lost matter.. Clusters…

  39. so i learned this as a kid…
    – "Every action, has an equal and opposite reaction"
    but, i never understood this when it comes to gravity…

    it seems obvious when talking about 2 objects touching each other (electromagnetic force)
    but, when 2 objects (lets say the same size – 2 basketballs) are attracted to each other at a distance,
    then, it is gravity acting on them…

    if they both are moving toward each other, is that really an "opposite" force ?

    my theory is that since photons can act over large distance, so can gravity…
    and if all objects (with mass) are attracted to all other objects with mass,
    then there should also be a repulsive force somewhere ?
    maybe this is dark energy ?

  40. I have a doubt of using spectrograph to see what cannot be seen.
    We should rather be constructing a mega structure similar to LIGO to detect gravitational waves and see how much of these gravitational waves flow in the universe.
    Such megastructure may detect gravitational waves that would address the questions:
    Can these gravitational waves constructively create galactic size gravitational waves to produce hypothetical gravitons that can produce matter gravity-like phenomenon?
    Can dark matter be created by disturbance in the space time such as gravitational waves?
    If space time creates these gravitons due to gravitational waves, can these graviton energy be derived from the dark energy?
    If gravitons are derived from dark energy, can gravitons be used to derive dark energy's antigravity property?
    If antigravity property can be derived from the deterioration of gravitons, can we control space time for galactic travel?

  41. Yeah my physics Club study dark energy for quite a few years and then I realized they're full of it you're full of it it's a plasma electric universe. You guys are just fooling yourself and trying to scrape some money together from the government you lazy hounds

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