Mongols Season 1 Full – from Genghis to Kublai
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Mongols Season 1 Full – from Genghis to Kublai

August 13, 2019

Hard places often breed hard people and Mongolia is one of the most inhospitable lands in the world This is the story of the people who came out of the steppes and built the biggest empire in history This is the story of Temujin and how he became genghis khan The history of the eastern part of the Asian steppe is shrouded in mystery and so the early history of the Mongols is still debated At the beginning of the 10th century the proto mongolic Catan people formed an empire called the great liao the khitans fought many wars in Korea China and Central Asia, but by 1125 were defeated by the Chinese Jin dynasty and moved to establish a new kitten state called western liao To the north in modern-day mongolia a number of nomadic tribes United in a tribal Confederation called camed mongol, which can be translated as whole mongol one of the clans within the confederacy was the boy chicken and its Representatives were elected the cons of the Union multiple times in the 12th century Kamik mongol was in a long-term rivalry with the tart oven federer sea, which also Noma dyes din the region This struggle weakened the Mongols and their Confederacy almost ceased to exist in the second half of the 12th century The chief of the Borja King plan at the time yesugay was trying to reunite the tribes once again in 1171 He arranged a marriage between his 9 year old son Temujin and the daughter of the chief of a nearby clan water Some sources claim that yesugay was poisoned by the Tartars during the wedding Temujin attempted to assume the role of chieftain but he was rejected and exiled with his family For the next six years Temujin lived in poverty and was even enslaved on occasion Eventually Temujin started forming his tribe with the help of his blood brother jamika and the leader of the care a tribe torille khan Tami gene and jamika raided other tribes together, but eventually they had a falling-out Jamika supported the traditional mongolian aristocracy while Temujin gave positions of power to capable people outside his tribe Threatened by ten virgins rise in popularity jamika attacked him in 1187 with an army of thirty thousand men Ten virgins twenty thousand men were decisively beaten at the Battle of Tallinn bells irked Not much is known about ten virgins life in the next ten years but in 1197 we see him commanding a united force of the mongols the care rights in the war against the Tartars initiated by the Jin dynasty Temujin would avenge his father in this conflict The leaders of the tartar tribes were executed while the non aristocrats were invited to join his ranks He delegated authority based on skill and loyalty rather than tribal affiliation or blood As an incentive Temujin promised civilians and soldiers a portion of the war spoils His new rules laid the foundations of a code of law, which would eventually be developed and applied to his empire His father’s death influenced a median. And one of the laws was that hospitality was sacred Guests and envoys should not be harmed Temujin revolutionized the step world Each victory brought more warriors to his site and he reformed the Mongols into an army The decimal system was implemented and the army was divided into tens hundreds thousands and ten thousands Transfers between the units were forbidden and if one man deserted the other nine in his unit were put to death Commanders were chosen by their men except for the commanders of the ten thousands so-called tumors who were handpicked by the card himself This chain of command allowed flexibility discipline and loyalty and was vital to performing sophisticated maneuvers Every able-bodied man had to be a part of this structure In 1201 a number of opposing clans called the council Kurata in the Mongolian language and declared jamika the Khan this sparked a five-year war between him and Temujin and the latter managed to defeat his former blood brother at the Battle of the thirteen sites that same year Temujin assembled another council of the mongol chiefs who elected him as their leader giving him the title of genghis khan the leader of all For the first time the warring tribes united as one nomadic nation under one banner and one authority In 1209 the mongols began their first invasion against the powerful western shia state to the southwest The details of this conflict are not clear, but it seems that genghis khan was successful in open battles But had difficulties taking the well fortified cities The mongols learned the importance of siege warfare in this campaign the surrounded city slowly succumbed to starvation and Diseases and the Chou Emperor had to submit to Genghis Khan and become his vassal Up until this point the Jin dynasty Underestimated the Mongols as a nuisance on their northern border and even refused a call to aid by the liao But by 1211 they were on high alert They even demanded Mongol submission which led to war In march 1211 genghis khan summoned all mongol chieftains and prepared to wage war against china The jin had a massive population and mobilized around 800,000 infantry most of which were untrained peasants with low morale and 150,000 highly-trained heavy cavalry This vast army. However was spread across the Great Wall and Garrison’s separate fortresses Meanwhile, the Mongols had a ninety thousand strong cavalry army, which had three main components Like cavalry Scouts horse archers armed with composite bows and heavy cavalry With lances and curved swords all of these men were highly trained and loyal After they bypassed the hopelessly ineffective Great Wall the Mongol split into two armies The main army was led by the Great Khan himself and was sixty thousand strong While the other thirty thousand were taken by his son oka day to attack the city of Dayton Genghis Khan headed for the strategic joo-young parts protecting Beijing but along the way he was stopped at the pass of Yahoo Ling where the bulk of the Jin army awaited him For months the Mongols waited for the Jin to make a move, but they held their ground while waiting genghis sent his trusted generals j-bay and subutai To lead a small force which attacked the western front from the rear in the Battle of whoosh a fortress The Jin army and their commander were annihilated Once the secondary army quickly grouped up with the main force, which was still waiting in Yahoo Lane The Mongols attacked the defenders in the mountainous terrain and pushed the Jin forces back Genghis sent men over the peaks surrounding the pass which the Jin generals thought was impossible and attacks the much larger army from both sides GEB a one of the best Mongol generals used the trademark Mongol tactic of a feigned retreat after a short skirmish the Mongols pretended to flee leaving loot as they fled the Jin defenders took the bait and left their fortifications trying to chase them down Little did they know they were falling into a deadly trap where thousands of them were attacked from all sides by Mongol archers With the gates of China now open Genghis Khan began raiding the countryside before he was drew for the winter The following year the Mongol struck again only this time they besieged our tongue where Genghis was wounded by an arrow The city held out against the invaders who once again retreated for the winter This time with even more knowledge about their enemy and siege warfare In 1213 when the Mongols invaded again Their mobility prevented the Djinn from organizing a successful resistance as their countryside was raided The Mongols began besieging multiple fortresses and cities and waited for the enemy to attempt to break the siege only to be ambushed and defeated The Mongols were fighting guerilla warfare within a foreign land The cities that surrendered had most of their inhabitants murdered or enslaved however engineers Artisans merchants doctors teachers priests and administrators were spared and asked to join the Mongol horde Many others were taken and used as meat shields for the following sieges Marching in the vanguard to block arrows or discourage the archers from firing After securing all Jin lands north of the Yellow River Genghis moved against the capital of Beijing and besieged it The Mongols tried to starve the city out, but after a few months an epidemic spread through their camp And they had to negotiate with the Jin emperor zhongzong He agreed to peace in exchange for a tribute of loot men Horses and his daughter along with subjugation to the mongol khan Thus the Mongols left China and returned to Mongolia with their treasure but just outside the Great Wall a messenger galloped to Genghis Khan the Emperor had moved his court to kaifeng to the south This enraged the Great Khan as it signaled that the Jin planned to retaliate The Mongols quickly returned to Beijing and precedes the city with the help of thousands of Chinese engineers The city was surrounded breached and raised For weeks thousands of carts hauled loot back to Mongolia The fires in the city burned for over a month while its people were massacred what was once considered a nuisance had brought a twenty million strong nation to its knees and Now the Mongol devastation was heading west The Neyman x’ were one of the tribes defeated by Genghis Khan in 1205 After the defeat the Prince of the tribe couch look fled to the west In 1208. He was defeated by genghis yet again and found refuge in the nearby western liao empire He was welcomed and even married the daughter of the Emperor. She leagoo Two years later which Luke rebelled against his father-in-law and took control of the Empire In 1216 kuch locha tax the city of Amalek, which was under Mongol protection Genghis Khan sent his best general J-bay, who defeated Cutler in the Battle of belleau Sagar and in two years the entire empire was under Mongol rule Now they were bordering the great qua raspbian empire that was ruled by a Persian eyes Turkic dynasty Genghis Khan sent a caravan with precious gifts to Shar. Mohammed ii hoping to establish trade However, the governor of the quail res me in city of atre in elgin had the members of the caravan arrested claiming They were spies Genghis khan then sent three ambassadors to the Shah himself to demand the merchants be set free Mohammad refused the merchants along with one of the ambassador’s were executed the rules of hospitality Which Genghis Khan considered sacred were broken and he started planning his retribution He gathered information from the Silk Road about his enemies assembled siege engineers from China and created a plan involving Separating his army into three columns The numbers for both sides are highly disputed but most scholars agree that at the start of the campaign the Mongols outnumbered the choir as mian forces with 100,000 against 60,000 In the winter of 1219 Genghis Khan sent his oldest son Joe Chi and jibei to cross the chanchan Mountains to ravage the Fertile Fergana Valley with around 20,000 men It was risky But paid off as they slipped through the defensive lines and confused the enemy who thought this was the main force meanwhile, another army under his second and third sons Chagga Ty and Augie day passed through the Sun garyun gate with haste and Besieged autre, which had a garrison of 20,000 After five months a deserter opened the gates and allowed the Mongols into the city Etre became the first of many settlements to have its entire population slain or enslaved before it was razed to the ground In algae captured and reportedly had molten silver poured into his eyes and ears Mohammed ii was preparing a strong defense around his capital sam account, but genghis tricked him by traversing 300 miles across the Kissel condesa, which was considered impossible Hopping from Oasis to Oasis The Mongols found themselves had the gates of bukhara The city’s defenses were weak So the desperate defenders tried to Sally out and meet the Mongols in open battle where they were massacred on mass Next came the qual res mean capital of Samarkand the Mongols closed in during march of 1220 The mongols assaulted the city and it’s 40,000 strong Garrison using prisoners as meat shields on the third day the garrison launched a counter-attack feigning retreat genghis true approximately half of the garrison including war elephants outside of the Fortifications of Samarkand and slaughtered them in the open fields Shah. Mohammed ii attempted to relieve the city twice but was driven back on the fifth day all but a handful of soldiers surrendered the city’s inhabitants numbering around 100,000 were slaughtered The Shah and his son managed to escape to the west so genghis khan ordered his generals Suba tie and j’avais to hunt them down with a force of around 20,000 the legendary expedition of this army deserves its own episode and will be covered soon After finishing the destruction of Samarkand Genghis Khan moved against the wealthy city of Ur gets from the south While his son Joe Chia tacked it from the north Despite the stout defense the city was taken but that created a new complication for the Mongols George II was given the right to loot the city for himself but preferred to negotiate with the locals to avoid property damage While his brothers who disliked him argued against this unusual behavior Genghis removed his oldest son from command and appointed his third son Bhagat a in his stead who in turn Ordered the city to be destroyed This decision would have a significant impact on the Empire in the following decades as it forever Alienated Georgie from the rest of the family While her Gantt was being destroyed to Louie Timmy jeans youngest son took fifty thousand men into the region of Khorasan He occupied and razed the cities of bulk Merv and Nishapur in rapid succession Air at surrendered and was spared as was any other city that surrendered without a fight The Mongols couldn’t control such a vast population So they used practical brutality as their primary method to subjugate a nation the massacres were committed without religious or cultural reasons and they wanted everyone to know it as a method to prevent resistance Until now the Mongols never allowed their enemy to raise an army using psychological warfare and picking off smaller parties Also, they were never at one spot all at once While a city was besieged another army was patrolling and pillaging the countryside The son of Mohammed Jalal Aldin Managed to recruit an army of Turkic and Afghan warriors numbering 60,000 which was not expected by the Mongols As soon as news of this reached Genghis Khan, he sent an army of 30,000 men led by a tartar. Nobleman Kotaku Jalal Aldin moved 2 150 miles north of Kabul Afghanistan where he awaited the inevitable battle Kotaku decided not to wait for the orders of their khan and engaged the enemy At pow1 the two sides met in a narrow valley unsuitable for cavalry maneuvers Jalal, al deen took the initiative Ordering his right wing of turks to dismount and engage in a skirmish pouring arrows onto the mongols His archers were winning the skirmish as the dismounted archers were more accurate and deadly than the mounted ones Both sides held their ground until the following morning when the afghan warriors noticed the mongol army was being reinforced This alarmed the commanders but jalal al deen calmed his officers and instead of retreating Ordered his entire line to dismount and engage In reality the Mongols had put straw men on the usual three to four spare horses. They had with them as a bluff Seeing the entire line dismounted Kotaku ordered his horsemen to attack the Afghan left-wing with a barrage of arrows But they were repelled by the unwavering archers Then the Mongols charged along the entire front Hard pressed by the rough narrow terrain Which rendered the usual tricks of feigned retreat and encirclement impossible the famous Mongol discipline Disintegrated for the very first time against a foreign foe as the riders faced the arrows of the numerically superior force head-on At this point the Mongols began to retreat and Jalal al Deen saw his chance He ordered his men to remount and counter-attack Half of the Mongol army was obliterated while the other half escaped This defeat broke the illusion of Mongol invincibility and the cities who had peacefully surrendered rose up in arms Which forced Genghis and his son to the way to spend extra month subduing the revolts? But the army of the quarantining Prince started to fall into discord immediately after the victory Left with only 20,000 men to Lao Aldean headed for the Indus River to find refuge in India The great card immediately made his way to parwa After a two-day race across Punjab Genghis Khan caught up to Jalal Aldean at the Indus River Just before the prince was able to cross The mongols rested for the rest of the day and at dawn charged the enemy Pressed up against the river while their flank was covered by the mountain The initial charge was repelled and Jalal Aldin ordered a counter-attack, which nearly broke the Mongol army Genghis then sent his reserve of 10,000 around the mountain to flank. Jalal Aldean’s army With his forces attacked from two directions and collapsing into chaos. Jalal Aldean decided to escape Following the victory genghis sent one of his commanders along with 20,000 men to chase down the prince But the prince was nowhere to be found Regardless most of the choir Espeon territory was annexed and it’s shard ID on an island in the Caspian Sea as for its people it is said that the Mongols reduced the population of this prosperous region to 200,000 from the initial 2 million The Mongol invasion of Asia was just starting After Mongol general sue Bhatia and jibei and their 20,000 Warriors failed to catch up to the cuirass me ensure they spent the winter of 1220 in Iran and Azerbaijan raiding and looting while preventing the Western powers mian forces from assisting jalal ad-din to the east Here they conceived the idea of conducting the most audacious reconnaissance in force in history in 1221 the army first entered the kingdom of Georgia where they pillaged the countryside for supplies The King George the fourth seeing his lands ravaged by the invaders Assembled an army which included many knights who had pledged to join the Fifth Crusade in the ensuing battle at sagem e-soo butai feigned a retreat which lured the slower Heavily armored cavalry away from their infantry before he encircled and massacred thurman The mongols then returns to Azerbaijan and Iran and burned and pillaged a few more cities in A few months, Georgia was invaded by super toy yet again George the fourth attempted to stop the invaders near tibi Lisi, but his army was ambushed yet again These battles weakened Georgia and allowed the Mongols to pass through the Caucasus Mountains Suba tie pushed his forces through the mountains during the winter. His troops took heavy casualties and were exhausted when they descended from the mountains Their army was met by a coalition of the local lesbians Allen’s kipchak sand Fokker bulgarians The enemy army had more than 50,000 troops At first the Mongols charged, but were repelled The coalition decided to hold their ground and wait for the Mongols to die of starvation Low on supplies and unable to outmaneuver his opponent Subitize secretly sent bribes to the Kipp Czechs who made up most of the force appealing to them as fellow nomads in The middle of the following night the kipchak slept and headed home Subbu ty immediately charged the remaining troops and defeated them However, he didn’t stop there and ordered his horsemen to chase after the Kipp Czechs who were slowed by the baggage train of treasures They had received The Mongol slaughtered them as well and then raised the wealthy city of Astrakhan on the Volga River Finding themselves on familiar flat terrain with plenty of villages to pillage j-bay and super Thai now parted their forces J-bay, travelled towards the Dnieper River while super time moved south to the Crimea Zubat I and the local Venetian Trading Post entered an alliance and the Mongol general promised to destroy any non Venetian colonies in the area Indeed he attacked and razed so dire and in return the Venetians provided the Mongols with information about the kingdoms of Europe Meanwhile the surviving Kip Jack’s fled and informed the Ross princes of their plight The area of modern Russia and Ukraine was controlled by a number of ruse principalities They united into one alliance to defend against the Mongols With the addition of the Kipchak forces this alliance had a combined force of around 60,000 troops mainly cavalry The mongols united into one army also and then sent ambassador’s to the Roose princess Telling them to stay out of the conflict as it didn’t involve them and the Mongol quarrel was with the kipchak Salone But the princess broke the golden rule, they killed the envoys The allied army caught up to the Mongols on the banks of the Dnieper River and tried to encircle them subbu Ty Sacrificed a rearguard of a thousand men who held the enemy while the rest of the army crossed the river and retreated east the Russians now discussed how to follow up this minor victory Some urge to pursue the Mongols while others argued to hold the frontier But it was the vengeful Kip Czechs who tipped the scales and the princes decided to chase the Mongols Each Prince marched separately from the others miles apart For nine days, the Mongols retreated just ahead of their pursuers They used hit-and-run tactics while leaving behind loot prisoners and livestock giving the Russians a sense that they were winning However, this was a trap by the end of the ninth day The Kipchak vanguard was way ahead of the rest of the army and smashed against the Mongols subbu ty ordered a retreat Crossing the small Kalka River with the kipchak hot on their tail and the Russian princes lagging behind even more With all the pieces in place, sir But– I sent his heavy lancers charging against the unprepared Kip checks from the front While his horse archers attached the ruse with arrows to further slow their advance Under cover of arrows the heavy Lancers kept plowing with ever-growing momentum against the unorganized Ruse who were charging at them one prince at a time? Every ruse who was not slain during the initial impact was funneled by the arrow fire into a narrow Corridor, which forced them to smash against the forces behind them creating a domino effect The battlefield became the most chaotic at the river itself The only army with the resemblance of a formation was that of mr. Slav of Kiev who had previously advised caution He rallied his 10,000 and many of those who were retreating to meet the charging Mongols Baggage trains were arranged into a fortified circle on high ground to become a beacon for the fleeing soldiers the Mongols soon surrounded this position Here. Mr. Slav held out for three terrible days while being showered with whistling arrows and bombarded with smoke bombs The defenders were left with no water and had to accept the Mongol offer of a peaceful surrender But as soon as they left the protection of their camp, they were attacked the Allies were surrounded on all sides except for a small gap Intentionally left open giving hope to many who took this chance to escape super ty laid this trap as he preferred to have those men be killed in smaller groups by the faster horse archers who picked them off one by one Only 1 in 10 warriors in the allied army managed to avoid death or capture as for mr slave of Kiev and the ruse Nobles they were tied up and placed beneath a wooden platform on which The Mongol generals feasted while the Russians were crushed beneath them Subete I then passed through the other side for Caspian Sea defeating even more Kipchak sand Volker bull cars on the way back to Mongolia While the Mongols didn’t conquer new lands on this grand expedition. They gained knowledge about the landscape the people and their armies Upon returning from the great raid Zubat. I wasted no time resting as he was assigned a new mission punishing the vassal kingdom of shisha for not contributing to the mongol campaigns Genghis Khan never tolerated betrayal and so he mustered a colossal force only this time the Mongols knew the territory and the art of the siege the Kingdom quickly fell and the emperor was murdered However before the invasion began genghis fell from his horse and injured his shoulder He quickly developed a high fever and was advised to go back to mongolia and rest, but the Great Khan pushed forward Life is full of irony and the shisha would be the very first and the very last people conquered by Genghis On August 18th 12 27 at the age of 66 Genghis Khan passed away Genghis his empire endured after his death through a series of laws. He developed and the capable children he had raised He had tried multiple times to deal with the looming question of succession before the campaign in qua resum He gathered his four sons in a tent and prepared to break another Mongol tradition According to which when a father died, his domain was inherited by the youngest son while the herd was divided between the rest Genghis Khan, however, urged his sons to maintain the unity of the Empire They helped him build and asked Joji to take the floor and speak his mind Before he could say a word Jagat I who rumors claimed was the real firstborn to Genghis Insulted him saying that he was not one of them and that he would never follow him as Great Khan Genghis decided the best way to keep the Empire intact was to give each son lands where they could settle and rule as Long as they respected the Great Khan The third son augur day would be the one to ascend to the throne Jouji was promised Persia and Europe Jagat. I was given Central Asia orchid a would get China while the youngest Tolui would take care of go Leah and So this family dispute over the Empire of one man led to lines being drawn all over the known world Creating a division which put the mongol legacy in danger Genghis khan passed away in 1229 and his son. Okay day became the Great Khan he was a talented administrator who transformed the Mongols from a tributary to a tax based Empire and commissioned the construction of the Capitol Karakoram he developed the Yasir law created a postal service introduced paper currency and Created civil service exams open to everyone while implementing a culture of religious tolerance This colossal shift from nomadic to bureaucratic governance led to a period of prosperity Called the Pax Mongolia In the next few decades Mongol conquests had three main directions central and southern China Central Asia Iran the Caucasus and the Middle East and modern-day, Russia and Eastern Europe as These three were often detached theatres. Each of the next three videos will focus on one direction starting with the invasion of Europe In 1235 the Mongol Kuralt I decided to send a big army to conquer Europe 130,000 commanded by the son of Joh Qi Batou headed to the region By 1237 volga bulgaria was conquered Crimea and the lands of the Kipp shacks allons and others were next and by the end of summer of that year All the lands to the east of the Don River belonged to the Mongols In November that you can’t sent his own voice to the court of prince yuri ii of vladimir Sisto and Demanded his allegiance it is not clear what happened during this embassy but in February of 1238 the capital of the princedom Vladimir was raised by the Mongols the chronology of events are open to debate, but we know that in 1238 and 12:39 many Rus princedoms were destroyed and their capitals were razed the Mongols moved fast dividing and conquering along the way not allowing the rus to unite their forces The biggest open battle of this campaign happened near the river sit and the Mongols prevailed The only major cities to escape destruction were Novgorod and piss Cove as they accepted Mongol Authority By the end of 12:39 the Mongols returned beyond the dawn But you had to send some of his forces south to help in the conquest of the Caucasus while the forces of monkey were recorded to Mongolia so the Mongols spent the spring of 1240 recruiting troops from local tribes In the summer of the same year the Mongols restarted their offensive The biggest most prosperous veracity Kiev was besieged in September The Envoy sent in were killed and the city fell after a three-month long siege All 50,000 locals were massacred With the ruse principalities belonging to the Golden Horde the Mongols now looked towards Central Europe the Venetians delivered on their deal with subbu tie and provided him with valuable information on the kingdom’s they were facing Which allowed him to plan a devastating campaign against all of Europe? In December of 1240 the Mongols were ready to pounce on Poland and Hungary But who sent several messengers to the high duke of poland henry ii and the king of hungary Bella, the fourth both of these envoys were killed The mongols invaded Central Europe in three columns The first group was tasked with distracting Poland vada Caden and order with two humans the second mainly Batou and Suba tie with three to four two moons crossed the Carpathian Mountains through the very key pass and a third followed the Danube River In late 12:40 the first force advanced against Poland with a remarkable speed of 50 miles per day Sacking Lublin and Sandy buttes on the 13th of February 1241 They then split their force 1/2 man under order moved to central Poland and another and divider and Cayden swept south Defeating a small contingent at the Battle of Kursk Oh in late February 1240 the capital of Poland Krakov was abandoned looted and then burned Then the Mongols advanced on the central city of Silesia thought Slough Which was left undefended by the Polish nobility in the hope of buying more time to assemble an army While setting up for a siege of the city by day and Cayden received reports that a great host was marching towards them So they turned from what’s faff to intercept the Polish army before it got a chance to unite with the big bohemian army The two armies met on April 9th at the field of leg needsa the Polish army led by henry ii had around 7 to 8 thousand troops most of them from poland with contingents from Moravia Bavaria and the Teutonic order while the Mongol force under by dar was slightly less numerous with around 6,000 troops the Polish force consisted of heavy cavalry infantry And peasants while the Mongol force was made up of the usual horse archers and heavy Lancers The battlefield was a plane surrounded by small rivers the center of the Christian army consisted of three lines of cavalry with Infantry on the flanks and a smaller reserve under Henry in the rear By divided his troops into four divisions each with a mix of horse archers and Lancers The first line of the Polish cavalry charged against the Mongol vanguard, but was pushed back after some initial success Henry then sent the rest of his cavalry forward and this time under the pressure the Mongols began to withdraw the Allied Cavalry gave chase separating themselves from the infantry a Signal was given by the Mongol commander to set fire to the plants growing on the field This created a dense smoke and smell Unbearable to the Christian army, and it’s infantry on the flanks failed to see the battlefield clearly In that moment the mongrel horse archers began firing at the confused riders disorientated by the smoke The cavalry was annihilated and that left only the unarmored peasants on the flanks completely exposed With no support the Polish wings were massacred and re attempted to flee from the battlefield But was caught killed and beheaded His severed head was displayed on a pike in front of the town of leg Nitzer striking fear into the populace While by dog was busy slaughtering the Polish nobility at leg Nitzer 600 kilometers to the south king Bella of Hungary was lining up his armies for battle after Six days of chasing the main Mongol force under Batu and subitize in a campaign eerily similar to Kalka He ordered a fortified camp of wagons to be constructed near the siyao River refusing to take the bait While the terrain was plain the river had flooded and could only be crossed vara narrow 200 metre long bridge The Mongols had around 15 to 20,000 troops and were outnumbered by the 40,000 strong Hungarian army of which about 15,000 were cavalry? The Hungarians had contingents from Croatia Austria and the order of the Templars After hearing that the Mongols were crossing the bridge under the veil of darkness the Hungarians moved marching seven kilometers in the dark and Descending upon the bridge at midnight The Mongol Vanguard was destroyed as their horse archers were exposed during the night and unprepared for the enemy crossbowmen The Hungarian army left a small force to guard the bridge as they returned to camp to celebrate thinking that the invaders had been repulsed on the morning of April 11th, 12:41 Subutai sent a force north to cross through a shallow spot in the river while he was making his way south for a makeshift bridge Meanwhile batsu ordered seven heavy catapults to bombard and distract the crossbow man guarding the bridge After stalling for a while, the northern troops descended upon the bridge guards from the rear and routed them At the Hungarian camp a great argument broke out as the king was blamed for not preparing his force for another engagement This gave time for the Mongols to cross the river Still the Hungarians were once again gaining the upper hand as bad two failed to organize his troops in a proper formation As the Mongols were being pushed against the river with nowhere to run Subbu timer Acula Slee joined the engagement and attacks the Hungarians from the rear Subbu tie then rallied the troops who had seen heavy casualties and ordered them to surround the Hungarian camp – which Bella had retreated There Mangan ELLs bombarded the camp with stones while archers shot flaming arrows The Hungarians attempted to break the encirclement on three occasions, but were repelled each time Once again, the Mongols left a gap giving Hungarian troops. Hope of escape Most of the defenders fled for their lives only to be chased down by more archers lying in ambush This trick meant that the Mongols would be killing the enemy while they were running Instead of fighting for their lives which allowed them to avoid extra casualties The Hungarian army ceased to exist Bella made it to safety. But the entire population of Hungary was left at the mercy of subitize troops In the span of two days the strongest kingdoms of Central Europe were defeated With free reign over Hungary the Mongols did what they did best ravaged the countryside Starting with pests more than half of the settlements in the plains of Hungary were destroyed It is said that Hungary lost around 500,000 of its population the mongols then invaded Serbia and Bulgaria these lands were ravaged and Bulgaria was forced to become a tributary to the Mongols for several decades as The situation was only getting direr the Pope called for an anti Mongol crusade Meanwhile, the Holy Roman Emperor began to levy his troops and organize a defense The Mongols were planning to reach the Atlantic Ocean and there was no army strong enough to stand in their way However, this was not to occur the Great Khan or g’day passed away in December of 1241 and Batou along with most of his troops had to return to Mongolia to participate in the elections of the next leader of the Mongol Empire Europe was saved After his defeat at the Battle of the Indus River in the spring of 1221 the Prince of the quarries, Maine Empire Jalal Aldean continued retreating deeper into Punjab Soon the Mongol troops stopped chasing him Jalal Aldin spent the next three years gathering his forces in the area and even took over most of Punjab He attempted to get the mamluk sultan of delhi to ally against the mongols But the latter wasn’t eager to draw the ire of genghis Instead in 1224 the sultan attacked jalal al-din The prince was forced to leave lahore. He raided gujarat and then returned to iran in the same year As his father was long dead jalal al-din claimed the throne of quail resin Iran and the Caucasus had been weakened by djembe and super-tight a few years before so he had an easy time consolidating the region He destroyed the state of the at of eggs of azerbaijan and moved his capital to Tabriz away from mongol reach In the same year, he vas alized the Shervin shah’s and attacked. Georgia In 1226, the Georgians were defeated at the Battle of garni Tbilisi was captured after that and both the Christian and Muslim population of the city were massacred The Mongol sent a small army to Iran in 1227, but Jalal Aldin crushed it near Rey His activity in the area provoked a response the Sultan of the seljuqs of room cake about the first a bit sultan al camel and the king of solution armenia ethem the first United their forces against him in 1228 and the qual resume enforces were soundly defeated near era van This war weakened him and all over Iran and the Caucasus rebellions against him began The Great Khan Olga day used this and sent an army under Chama can to conquer Iran once again The Mongols won a battle against the Shah somewhere in central Iran in 1231 Jalal Aldin retreated all the way to modern Turkey with the Mongols chasing Finally Jalal al Deen was assassinated in Sylvan and the cuirass Mian Empire ceased to exist The Seljuks Silesia and Georgia became the vassals of the Great Khan Little of note happened in the region in the next decade as the Mongols were busy with the campaign in Eastern Europe But when Oh g’day passed away in 1241 The Mongol governor of the region Baiju asks the Seljuk Sultan a curse for the second to renew his vassal oath The latter refused and raided another Mongol vassal, Georgia Bide, you pushed the Seljuks back and moved towards a syrup The envoys sent to the city Were not killed but insulted Still a zoo room was taken and its population was massacred The mongols then retreated to amass more troops in Georgia and Armenia Sultan cake is fraught ii asked his allies to help and received minor assistance from Nakia Trebizond the AO bids and even recruited some mercenaries from among the Crusaders the thirty thousand strong Mongol army moved into seljuq territory in 12:43 and cookus Rus sixty thousand met them in June at Kerr cedar near modern-day seevis We know very little about the ensuing battle But the mongols feigned retreat yet again and forced the Seljuk vanguard which had around 20,000 troops to chase them as Soon as a significant gap formed between the vanguard and the rest of the Sultan’s forces the Mongols turned back surrounded and crushed the soldiers The Sultan and his advisors retreated and the seljuqs were forced to become Mongol vassals yet again In Mongolia Mon coeur became the Great Khan in 1251 and gave his brothers cupola and Hulagu supervisory roles in China and Persia respectively In 12:56 Hulagu entered the Middle East with more than 100 thousand warriors He conquered the remnants of the Quail resume in Empire and then moved against the legendary Hashashin order These renowned and feared assassins held dozens of fortresses But a combination of infighting and the fact that by now the Mongols were experts at siege warfare Inflicted heavy casualties upon them their Grandmaster surrendered and handed all the fortresses to hooligan With all of Iran secured Hulagu sent worse to the Abbasid caliph al muster sim Demanding his obedience, but the latter refused on January 11th, 1258 the Mongols approached Baghdad the biggest and most prosperous city of its time Al mr. Sim, finally decided to meet them in battle and sent out a force of 20,000 cavalry to attack the Mongols These troops defeated the Mongol vanguard, but rather than retreat to the safety of the city walls they set up camp and enjoyed a feast of celebration the Next morning. They were surrounded by the Mongols on one side and by the river on the other Those who were not killed in the slaughter drowned The Mongols built walls around the city to provide safety for the siege engines as well as to prevent the defenders from breaking out Almost Asim made attempts to negotiate. Peace, but that ship had already sailed By February 10th 1258 the city surrendered under a constant barrage of catapult fire The sacking continued for seven days and only the Christian population of the city was spared The grand library of Baghdad was burned to the ground This destruction put an end to the Islamic Golden Age and moved to the center of power from Baghdad to Cairo For the first time in Muslim history Islam had no caliph Hulagu didn’t intend to stop as he pushed forwards toward Syria Aside from the coastal territory belonging to the Crusader States Most of the Levant was still under the control of the IUB Sultanate which was weakened by the loss of Egypt to the Mamluks The IU bids offered to pay tribute, but Hulagu was not interested He was joined by the Georgians Armenians and the troops of the Crusader Prince Haman to the seventh and On January 18th 1260 Aleppo was besieged and suffered the same fate as Baghdad This caused massive panic and resulted in the cities of Homs and Damascus willingly surrendering sparing themselves from destruction But suddenly grave news was delivered to Hulagu the Great Khan mon coeur died of sickness during the war against the Song Dynasty in China This sent a ripple through the empire and halted the massive campaigns The Empire was on the brink of Civil War and Hulagu left the Levant for Mongolia One hour – two men stayed in the region under the command of kit Buca The man looks were offered peace, but they knew that Hulagu left with the majority of his troops, so the Mongol envoys were killed Yet Bucher tried to form an alliance with the Crusader States. However, that attempt failed Mamluk sultan qutuz assembled his army and moved to palestine When news of this reached kid bucha, he prepared to meet the Mamluks army, but a rebellion in Damascus slowed him down Meanwhile the man looks moved north and camped outside of Acker Mangal spies reported back to kid bucha that the enemy army outnumbered his at least two to one Still the Mongol general left Damascus with an army of some 25,000 men made up of Mongols Georgians and Armenians in Early, September 1260. He crossed the Jordan River and entered the valley near the village of angelarts Where according to legend David slew Goliath? The Mongol cavalry charged the Mamluk Vanguard commanded by Baybars This group broke under the charge and fled up the valley kakuka gave chase but in reality The Mongols were falling for their own trick as Beiber’s was luring his enemies in with his retreat The Mongols pursued the broken vanguard to the valley where qutuz awaited with most of his forces Baybars his troops finally reached the main line Despite having vastly superior numbers the Sultan was cautious and stayed in position Kid Booker used that and decided to commit all of his troops. The Mongols were to engage the entire Mamluk army The Mongol second line was ordered to wheelwright and run the Mamluk front ranks towards cooter Z’s left-wing The entire left flank of the Muslim army started crumbling under the Mongol pressure the Sultan tried to regain his left side for hours his troops from the right flank were sent to the left and Eventually, the Mongols were pushed back and the left side was restored Peters sent his reserves to the extreme wings It was the moment for the final attack and Cooter’s personally led his bodyguards into battle The Mongol army fought well, but they were pinned in place by the overwhelming numbers of their foe When all the Mongol troops were engaged – – sent his extreme flanks into the attack The Mongols were close to being surrounded and when their leader died in the center they started to flee They lost between five and ten thousand warriors The Mamluks one at angelarts using their superior numbers and by mirroring the usual Mongol tactics Angela also made the ma’am looks into the most significant Muslim power of its time Internal conflicts over the succession delayed the Mongol response and while they didn’t know it yet This would be their Zenith and the beginning of the end of the greatest empire the world had ever seen The Great Khan mon coeur died in 1259 world campaigning against the sun His youngest brother eric was in the capital Karakoram while cupola and Hulagu were campaigning Instead of returning home Kublai decided to finish his fight against the song Eric declared himself the Great Khan with the support of the noble houses who saw Kublai as too soft because of his Buddhist beliefs Upon learning this Kublai declared himself Khan and marched against his brother starting a civil war Meanwhile to the west the Muslim leader of the Golden Horde burqa wasn’t going to forgive the sacking of Baghdad He used the fact that Hulagu was on his way to China to start raiding the territories of the ill Carnot the territory of the house of chengetai Separated the two civil wars within the Mongol Empire But it would be used as a political chip in the conflict. The Empire was now divided into five parts The war between Eric and Kublai is known as the Tollywood Civil War We know very little about this conflict, but it started in 1260 and lasted for four years During this war Kublai made the crucial decision to leave South China and focus on the north while the song were Retaking some of their lost territories with nearly no resistance Eric attacks the Western see our territories that was repelled Kublai then advanced on Karakoram which was left abandoned and raised it to the ground At the same time both Eric and Kublai attempted to place their candidates on the throne of the jagat. I Carnot Eric intercepted Kublai’s nominee and assassinated him Jagga ties grandson algún was made the car However when Eric’s situation deteriorated Algy declined to help him in the war and even killed his own voice Kublai failed to use that to his advantage as he had to pull back his forces to parts of China which were in open rebellion This allowed Arif to go to war against Al gu and while he did win this conflict over the jagat icannot He did serve with heavy casualties As a result many of his allies deserted him including his own son. Who stole the seal of the Great Khan and Delivered it to Kublai Left with no supporters or supplies Eric traveled to Shang do alone and personally surrendered himself to his brother Kublai became the new Great Khan apart from bringing discord to the Empire This civil war pushed Kublai towards an even stronger affiliation with the Chinese troops bureaucrats and population Meanwhile Hulagu and burka were fighting along their borders in the caucuses and Khorasan Hulagu returned to the area in 1262 In the same year his son ibaka moved into the Golden Horde territory via Central Asia who had suffered a defeat Emboldened burkas army supported by Erik counter-attacked, but lost decisively somewhere to the east of the Caspian Sea Hulagu then decided to use the route taken by subitize and moved into the hordes territory using the pass of Durban Initially this campaign looked promising and the enemy retreated under the pressure Hulagu sent a portion of his force led by his son to pursue the foe They came upon a deserted but world provisioned camp and decided to rest and feast This however was a trap and they were surprised by the main force of the Golden Horde After heavy fighting the ill Carnot’s troops began to retreat over the frozen Terek River With the ice cracked under the weight of men and horses and many drowned in the freezing water Hulagu was forced to retreat to the south and burka regained much of his lost territory Neither side had enough strength to continue the war and when Eric surrendered to Kublai the golden horde also accepted his authority in 1265 Hulagu passed away followed by burqa in 1266 That ended the hostilities But still the Mongol Empire was broken and the legacy of Genghis was represented by four different states With the civil wars over Kublai Khan worked tirelessly to transform the Mongol Empire into the Yuan Dynasty The capital was moved to a city called kanbalan or da du which would later become Beijing in 1271 Kublai declared himself Emperor He and his descendants slowly became more Chinese than Mongol He built over 20,000 public schools was a patron of the arts and Constantly met with people from all around the world including Marco Polo the Emperor issued Incorruptible paper bills backed by silver which were accepted across the entire Mongol Empire Something unheard of until then Kublai transformed the vast network of 1,400 postal stations to work as trading outposts as well opening China to the world like never before this spread ideas gunpowder other inventions and unfortunately the Black Death he created a highly efficient centralised government and Transformed the army gone were the days of the horde his army now consisted of a small Corps of Mongol warriors and a massive number of Chinese troops Kublai decided to take on the song again, but he knew that he had to adopt new strategies Song China had no, hope of stopping the Mongols in open battle, but they had some of the best fortresses of their time The best of those was the one in shang, yang which had supplies for years and had tall double walls Kublai knew that in order to fulfill his grandfather’s vision of conquering China he had to evolve his army 5,000 yuan ships were built and crews of Experienced North Chinese and Korean sailors were recruited with the purpose of taking the rivers of China and blocking enemy supplies This new navy came with 70,000 trained marines and was a testament to how adaptable the mongols were The siege of Shanghai on went on for six years as it held the most valuable position in China and its defenders knew that if the city fell the whole of China would follow Multiple attempts were made by the song to break out from all reinforce the city, but they didn’t stand a chance What finally broke the fortress was a new design of counterweights trebuchet that was able to fire? 300 kilogram stones from a distance of 500 meters Shang, yang, which had held out for years fell in days in 1273 Kublai’s forces quickly swept through southern China and although their position was now hopeless the song court raised Eight-year-old. Xiao ping to the throne The song sent emissaries to negotiate a peace, but they were rejected They ran from city to city seeking salvation and eventually boarded a huge fleet Kublai moved his navy to attack the song vessels and the decisive battle of this campaign happened at young men on march 19th 1279 The remainder of the song fleet consisted of 1,000 ships, but most of them were transports with a vast number of civilians on board Meanwhile, Kublai’s fleet had around 300 warships manned by 20,000 experienced Marines And he also had the advantage of holding the nearby lands and supplies some within the song forces suggested that the Navy should first claim the mouth of the bay to Secure their line of retreat to the west Their commander Zhang Shi Jie turned down this suggestion in order to prevent his soldiers from fleeing the battle He ordered the burning of all palaces houses and forts on land for the same reason Next the entire fleet of 1,000 ships was to be changed together forming one Horizontal line with the Emperor’s ship at the center This was done to prevent desertion and to show that it was the last stand The battle started with the UN forces filling small boats with combustible materials and sending them towards the song formation The song anticipated this move and already painted their ships with mud They were also equipped with large poles that used to prevent the fire ships from coming to close The yuan then blockaded the bay from either side and forced the Chinese to eat dry food and drink river water for a few days This still was not enough to break their spirits Seeing as their enemy wouldn’t budge the UN divided their force into four units and began attacking from all sides on separate smaller fronts as The song ships were changed together. They were sitting ducks unable to change formation and work together The UN hit them from the north when the tide was low and from the south when it was high Not allowing them a moment to rest Still the Chinese fought bravely and inflicted heavy casualties on the mongols with their arrows Suddenly these attacks stopped Festive music and laughter started coming from Cooper’s ships Thinking that the yuan were now distracted the song warriors decided to rest However, this music was a signal for a general attack The whole UN Navy was sent into the center under the cover of Aero fire All the song soldiers could do from the flanks was watch as their comrades were being slaughtered by the thousands including civilians Seeing that all hope was lost. One of the song Emperor’s close advisors grabbed him and jumped into the water committing suicide Shall Bing would be the last song Emperor China was once again unified under the UN the first foreign dynasty to do so Although the mongol realm was now shattered. The story of genghis descendants was far from over We would like to express our gratitude to our patreon supporters and channel members who make the creation of our videos possible Now you can also support us by buying our merchandise via the link in the description This is the kings and Generals channel and we will catch you on the next one

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  1. and what to admire here? Genghis Khan was mass murderer, alexander the great – another mass murderer, and so on… Great names with great crimes against humans… instead of building, they preferred to rob and murder… fck them all and their offspring ( I do not mean those who were the result of rape )

  2. half of mongol kingdom becomes muslim, by the barke khan,, love & pray from muslim world to barke khan ???

  3. well feasts meant for rising units morale and removing fatigue. If they fought endlessly without rest and food morale collapse and probability of lose will drastically grow big. But Mongols had many ways to outsmart and surpass other armies for many other things. almost all the things were superhuman* (well experienced, evolved, …) for other nations.

  4. Allah aşkina biri şu Turkce altyaziyi duzeltsin ya. Resmen Tlranslatedan cevirnis hıyar. Bilmiyorsan yapma kardesim

  5. The Mongols were the Atom Bomb of medieval times. Wholesale devastation and massacre everywhere they went.

  6. AWESOME AWESOME AWESOOOOOME, it's as immersive as it gets especially the part about Subutai wrecking havoc in Europe

  7. So many stupid comment.

    The hungarian campaign:

    1. Of course King Bela wasn’t stupid when he killed the mongolian envoys. In 1235 a dominican friar (Julian friar) was sent by the hungarian king to bring information about the emerging Mongolian Empire. Julian friar came back in 1236 with the threateaning and unfriendly letter of the Khan. The Khan envoys also threatened the hungarian king and claimed submission or die.

    After the mongols threatening moves and their eastern european conquests the hungarian king asks for help from the pope, the Holy Roman Empire and from the French King. But of course every time in our history they never helped us. The only main help was the templars who helped the hungarian army.
    The hungarian nobility also doesn't supported Bela's efforts.

    2. In 1239 the Hungarian Kingdom let in a huge number of cuman archers into Hungary (10 000 soldiers). These soldiers take important role in the hungarian army. The mongolian army also contained a lot of cumaninan soldier and therefore they became suspicious in the eye of the hungarians and two leaders of them were charged with espionage and executed in Buda. The news of the execution spread across the cumanians and they left the country and Hungary before the decisive battle.

    3. The battle :

    Althoug the mongols won the battle they suffered a pyrrhic victory. The mongols suffered very heavy casualities and they never met kind of resistance before. The khan guard commander Bakatu and his 30 man also died. According to a chinese almanac the khan considered the withraw but the emergeing of Subutai and the found swallows on the Sajo river saved the situation. Despite the mongols encircled the hungarian army the battle hold for a complete day.

    According to the persian histographer Ata-Malek Juvayni the mongols burned the wagons and captured the king’s wagon but the battle still hold to next day evening. The templars also fight for the last man. It was a bloody battle for the mongolians not an easy one as historians used to refering it. Juvayni said: „ that was their gratest achievments and their toughest battle”.

    4. The khan main goal to capture the hungarian king was also ruled out. After the battle the mongols acrossed the Danube but they couldn’t captured none of where stone walls standing like Esztergom, Pannonhalma, Győr..etc. many palces remained untouchable and the resistance of the hungarians were everywhere in the country.

    5. Ögödej's death wasn't the main reason of the pullout of the mongolian army. The main reason was the mongolian army suffered heavy casualities during the hungarian campaign.

    The hungarian army doesn’t completely destroyed because soon the hungarians beat Friedrick II. army and take back 3 counties. Hungary soon recovered.
    The news of the death of Ögödej could only arrive from the Far East only several months late, and on the other hand, the mongolian assembly only five years later choosed a new kahn.

  8. The Mongol Empire was history's largest contiguous land empire and The British Empire was the largest empire in human history

  9. I guess this demonstrates the difference between choosing leaders based on their skill and choosing leaders because my baby.

  10. Right men, the envoys didnt return, we attack at dawn, the usual, raping, pillaging and mass murder. Hey wait, no, sorry boys, false alarm, the envoys were just grabbing a Maccie D's.

  11. Mongolian history teaches us that emperors and kings are the curse of humanity. Democracy solved most of these primitive behaviors…

  12. Chillllll dudes . We mongolians choose our messengers from our suicide squad. To make sure that your meeting person is mad enough to kill you to declare war against your boss hha.

  13. 2 million died in baghdad

    But over 10 million died in europe by the hands of Sabutai and Batu Khan

    lol mongols fucked europe hard, its weird there isnt any victory from the Christians against Mongols but the muslims have won against the mongols in Ain Jalot Battle 1252

  14. 命运多舛蒙古人。。9:49 is Toxic……………lul。btw 蒙古声东击西蛮不错嘛,学习学习。。。握草我都不记得蒙古人打了这么远。。

  15. (Mongols): Give us 10% of your wealth and we will leave you alone … (Soon to be dead Ruler): When I am dead you may have it all …

    (Mongols): OK, thanks

  16. They came to Afghanistan in the 12th century Afghanistan had been calling Aryana In the end they defeated there by

  17. Just stumbled upon this video… simply it's awesome ?…can you please do a similar video on the Mughal empire? (Also supposed to be a descentants of Mongols)…and other great Kings from India like Chandra Gupta and many more…

  18. 00:56 Western Liao's location is wrong here. This is where Western Xia located. Western Liao is exactly far more west.

  19. Everyone talks about burning of baghdad library but no one talks about burning of nalanda and takshshila universities whose library burned for years.

  20. 0:56 This would mislead people to think Western Xia was founded by Khitan. In fact, Western Xia had long been established by the Tangut people before Khitan was defeated by the Jurchen Jin dynasty. Western Liao that was later founded by exiled Khitan nobility was located further west. At some point, it even controlled small parts of the Central Asia. Oh, I realised that you guys had been aware of the mistakes and tried the best to fix it.

  21. Who else face palmed when the Hungarian king retreated to celebrated after defeating a vanguard?

    …what on earth was he thinking??

  22. For those wondering why the mongol envoys were so often killed, just look up and read some of the surviving messages those envoys delivered lol… they read like they were written by the devil himself.

  23. Show up to return your book at the Baghdad library while the Mongols are patiently cutting everyone's throat….umm yeah ill just go to Cairo's library instead….

  24. This is by far and away better than anything the History Channel can produce.

    One question though, where can i find the background music? I particularly like the drum with a distinctive beat every other verse.

  25. "What is best in life?"

    To crush your enemies, see them driven before you, and hear the lamentations of their women!"

  26. 1) Genghis Khan setup your Kingdom in Siberia Baika 烏斡海l, not in Mongolia
    2) He is a Ugly,coming from Africa, not a Hunor, slave to the Golden Kingdom.

    The emperor of Genghis and the minister of the ministers are all black. It’s not so good for people, but the last one is only five feet two or three. There is no fat. The face is wide and wide, and there are shins on the upper and lower sides. There are no upper lines on the eyes, no need to be rare, and the lines are quite ugly. But now the Lord is not true, its body is sturdy and vast, and the characters are magnificent, so it is different.

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