6 of the Planet’s Best Hunters
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6 of the Planet’s Best Hunters

November 20, 2019

Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this episode
of SciShow. [♪ INTRO ] Close your eyes for a second and picture the
most fearsome predator you can imagine. What did you think of? Maybe a lion? A golden eagle? A rattlesnake? Those animals may be fierce, but it turns
out that when it comes to hunting prowess, they aren’t very impressive. Solo lionesses catch the prey they pursue
only about 2% of the time, and when they work together, they still only succeed at around
one in every four hunts. Golden eagles succeed in one out of five tries. And those snakes? Their strikes miss more often than not. That’s downright pathetic compared to the
near-perfect catch rate of the humble dragonfly. When you look at the numbers to find the planet’s
most efficient hunters, most aren’t exactly species you might think of as cold-blooded
killers. But the animals on this list are hunting machines,
each with a success rate of 60% or more. [1. Black-footed Cats] Big cats like lions, tigers, and leopards
are among the most feared predators, and for good reason—all cats are obligate carnivores,
meaning they need to eat meat to survive. But the most efficient hunter of the group
is actually Africa’s smallest feline: the black-footed cat. At only 2-2.5 kilograms, these kitties might
look like small, stocky house cats, but don’t let their size or cute little furry faces
fool you. They’re ruthless killers that capture 60%
of the prey they target! And that makes them at least twice as efficient
as most other cats. The closest contender would be cheetahs, which
successfully chase down about half of their targets. But black-footed cats don’t need speed. Instead, they rely on stealth. These cats are nocturnal, so they can use
the darkness to their advantage. Their small size also helps them stay hidden
in the short shrubbery of the arid habitats they call home. That way, they can silently stalk their prey
until they’re close enough to pounce. Individual cats have been observed killing
10-15 small mammals and birds in one night. And they don’t balk at attacking prey that’s
bigger than them, either. There’s a local legend that tells of a black-footed
cat killing a giraffe by slicing its jugular vein — which… probably didn’t happen, but it speaks to
their fierce reputation. Unfortunately, bravery and ruthlessness aren’t
enough to save them from poachers, habitat loss, or car tires, and they’re currently
classified as vulnerable to extinction. They’re not going down without a fight,
though. Researchers have seen adult cats circled by
jackals five times their size, fight to survive, and win. [2. African Painted Dogs] The members of the family Canidae also have
a pretty fierce reputation — think wolves, dingoes, and coyotes. But most are kind of meh hunters, with success
rates of 35% or less. Except for African painted dogs, that is — they
kill 70-85% of the prey they hunt. And teamwork is the secret to their success. While many canids live in packs and coordinate
hunts, African painted dogs are so dependent upon one another that lone animals probably
don’t survive long. And their one- to two-dozen dog packs are
surprisingly egalitarian. There’s less animosity between individuals
than in other pack-forming species — especially at meal time, when younger animals get first
dibs. They’ll also bring food back to the den
for pups too small to join in the hunt and adults with injuries. Studies suggest they even make certain decisions
somewhat democratically. And being such close-knit social animals likely
leads to better coordination between individuals when they’re hunting as a group. Packs work together to take down large prey,
including antelopes, zebras, and the occasional wildebeest, relying on the stamina of the
group rather than the element of surprise. They’ve even learned how to turn man-made
barriers like fences to their advantage. In fact, their killing prowess is so legendary
that it used to make them the bane of farmers and ranchers. So painted dogs were poisoned or shot on sight
to protect livestock, which is the main reason why there are only several thousand of these
now-endangered animals left. Another problem is that even though they’re
skilled, efficient hunters, their tactics are also time-consuming. And that may ultimately cause their demise
as climate change leads to more periods when it’s too hot for such long hunting trips. [3. Ospreys] Raptors, aka birds of prey, are all fierce
hunters that rain down terror from the skies. But being talented hunters doesn’t always
mean they’re efficient, and most raptors usually fail to catch their targets — except
for the ones that fish. Ospreys are the most efficient birds of prey
in the world, catching their meals 80-89% of the time. With wingspans of almost two meters, they’re
gigantic, and you can find them near bodies of water almost anywhere in the world. Bald eagles, which are also big, fish-loving
birds, are almost as talented, with a success rate of about 80%. The efficiency of both birds probably comes
from their shared taste for aquatic prey. When fish rest near the surface, pack themselves
into dense schools, or hang out in shallower waters, they’re easy pickings for aerial
hunters. And both species tend to target bottom-feeding
fish, which are generally slower-moving and may spend more time looking down at their
potential meals than watching for predators from above. Of course, finding slippery prey like fish
is only half the battle — ospreys also have to keep ahold of their meals until they can
find a suitable spot to land and feast. So ospreys have scaly skin on their feet for
extra grip, and their large, curved talons both cling ato and pierce their prey — especially
when they rotate their special fourth toe to grasp extra tightly. They can even snag two fish at once — one
in each foot. Hunting doesn’t get much more efficient
than that. [4. Harbor Porpoises] If you thought those crafty orcas that knock
seals off ice or go onshore to grab pups from the beach would be the most successful cetacean
hunters, well, sorry. You’re thinking too big. Because the most successful hunter among the
whales and dolphins is the sweet little harbor porpoise, with a success rate of over 90%. The harbor porpoise tops out at around 80
kilograms and is less than 2 meters long from nose to tail. In addition to being small, they’re pretty
shy — which is maybe why you’ve never seen one, even though they’re common in
coastal areas across the northern hemisphere. They also spend pretty much all day hunting,
because they need to eat 10% or more of their body weight every day. Their small size means both a higher metabolism
and greater susceptibility to cold, so they need to burn a lot of calories to keep warm
in the chilly waters they live in. If they go a day without eating, porpoises
can get visibly thinner, and after three days, they die. Of course, when you need to eat that much,
it helps to be an efficient hunter. Exactly how they’re so much more successful
at catching their prey isn’t clear, but it might have something to do with the way
they use sound while hunting. Like many of their relatives, they find and
track the fish they eat using echolocation. And also like many of their relatives, when
they get near their targets, they emit a series of super-rapid clicks called a “buzz”. But harbor porpoises buzz at more than 500
clicks per second, which is over three times the rate recorded from orcas hunting fish. And it’s possible those super-fast clicks
give them a more accurate picture of their prey. It also probably helps that the fish can’t
really hear these clicks, so they don’t necessarily realize the porpoises are getting
close. However they do it, porpoises manage sometime
to eat upwards of 550 fish an hour — an entire order of magnitude more than estimates
for other cetacean species. They’re so ravenous, they’ve even been
known to swim up into rivers to chase down food. They’re basically miniature, hangry dolphins. [5. Dragonflies] To us, they might look pretty, or sometimes
goofy, but dragonflies are strong contenders for the insect world’s best hunters. Their larvae terrorize small fish, tadpoles,
and aquatic invertebrates, and the adults are ruthless aerial hunters that catch 95%
or more of the bugs they chase. Their large eyes, which have around 30,000
facets, give them 360 degree vision, so nothing moves without them knowing. They also have specialized pigments that detect
a wide variety of colors, and the tops of their eyes are extra sensitive to blue and
UV light, which helps give them better contrast for spotting prey against the sky. Once they find a target, they can selectively
focus their visual attention, much like we can, to keep track of its every move. Then, they take to the air. Dragonflies can chase down their meal at up
to 55 kilometers an hour. And their four wings give them incredible
maneuverability, even compared to other super-agile insects. They can fly forward, backward, straight up
and down, side to side, upside down, rotate on a dime, or simply hover and wait for the
right moment to strike. When they do go in for the kill, they don’t
aim themselves at their prey directly. They actually intercept their targets in midair
by predicting where they’ll go with a special neural circuit in their brains — which is
part of why they almost never miss. All these special adaptations make dragonflies
into impeccable aerial assassins. Which might explain why they’ve been around
for some 300 million years. [6. Leatherback Sea Turtle] Venomous snakes might be the deadliest reptiles
on the planet, but they’re far from the most efficient. There is a reptile, though, with a perfect
record: the leatherback sea turtle, which catches and consumes every single bit of prey
it targets. In a way, that makes it among the best hunters
in the world. That might be because leatherbacks only eat
jellyfish, which aren’t exactly the fastest moving prey on the planet, but with their
tentacles covered in millions of venomous stinging cells, jellies are still a formidable
food item. And they’re not very nutritious, either. Leatherbacks need to eat enough calories to
fuel their massive bodies, which can be over 2 meters in diameter and weigh 900 kilograms. That’s a lot of jellyfish. Luckily, the leatherback sea turtle is a giant,
jelly-killing machine. They can dive to depths of over 1100 meters
in search of their prey, and can stay submerged for nearly an hour and a half. Once they find a juicy lion’s mane or other
jelly swimming around, they aim for the bell, taking a big bite of the gelatinous body. The unlucky jelly’s stinging cells can’t
pierce the turtles’ leathery shell and thick skin, and all hope of escape is lost as soon
as any part of the jelly enters the turtle’s mouth. Large, hardened spines called esophageal papillae
ensure that nothing that goes in can leave, even when the turtle is spitting out excess
water it swallowed. The turtles are such good jelly-hunters that
they can consume nearly double their massive body weight in jellies every day when there’s
a bloom. Unfortunately, the turtles aren’t so great
at telling the difference between tasty jellies and not-so-tasty plastic bags, which can cause
fatal blockages in their intestines. Which means the leatherback’s efficient
jelly-hunting might be its downfall — unless we get our plastic pollution in check. So, like the other species on this list, the
leatherback might not be the most terrifying animal on the planet. But as hunters, they outperform their deadliest
relatives. It just goes to show: you can’t judge the
best assassins by their looks. But sometimes judging something by its looks
is really important, like when you’re applying for a job or a program and you need a professional
portfolio. But what’s the exact purpose of the portfolio? What should you include? And how do you organize it all? Well, if you’ve wondered these things, check
out Sonia Nicolson’s Skillshare class “Portfolio Preparation.” There, she guides you through choosing a focus
for your portfolio and the step by step process of creating and submitting one. We’ll link to her class in the description
as well as a special offer from Skillshare. Right now, Skillshare is offering SciShow
viewers two month s of unlimited access to Skillshare for free. Just click on the link in the description
to check it out. If you like learning with us at SciShow, we
think you’ll also enjoy Skillshare classes and all this week we’re working with Skillshare
to highlight fun and challenging classes. [♪ OUTRO ]

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  1. Skillshare is offering SciShow viewers two month s of unlimited access to Skillshare for free! : https://skl.sh/scishow15

    Also, check out Sonia Nicolson’s Skillshare class “Portfolio Preparation.”: https://skl.sh/2BU4wfA

  2. The larger the animal, the more fat, the longer it can go between kills. The smaller animals must become the best hunters to survive.

  3. Typical humans kill predatory animals to slaughter and consume their livestock, and justify hunting with their endangerment. Live and let live, not live and decimate.

  4. This abject bullcrsp of global warning is nothing but junk science and there is absolutly no bloody evidence whatsoever thst there is any sort of this bullcrap
    Nothing but pathic lies

  5. 0:25 "DiD YoU JuSt aSsUmE mY gEnDeR!?!?" said the female lion that identifies as "a photograph of a man lion"

  6. Worlds most efficient hunter brought down by plastic bags? If it weren't so tragic, it would be hilarious.

  7. I get why they include the information about habitat loss and threats, but sometimes I just want to enjoy a video about nature and amazing animals without my mood being ruined. I get the threats, I understand it, I get all of that. But I need an escape from bad news sometimes.

  8. Feral and outdoor pet cats together have caused the extinction of at least 70 recorded species of native wild animals world wide. Lizards, snakes, turtles, frogs, countless native birds, rodents, insects, arachnids, fish, marsupials, ect, have been completely eradicated by this invasive species. Not counting the unknown number of species that died as a direct result of cats removing key species in the natural food chain. Cat urine is also a problem since it kills many pants upon contact. A single outdoor pet cat, will kill at least three native animals a week and not even consume them for food. Domestic cats will kill simply because that’s what they were literally created to do. The problem is that they do the job too well and target animals other then just non-native rats and mice. If you have a cat or are someone considering getting one, please keep it indoors, be sure to have them spayed or neutered, and keep in mind that thousands of cats in shelters today, need loving homes. Adoption is the best option. Many shelters even have kittens! Keep that in mind and you will be doing your cat and the environment a favor! Have a lovely day. 🙂

  9. I actually thought of my little black cat, that cumulatively caught over a thousand little mice, birds, and other things in the yard per 5 years.

  10. I mean, don't pitcher plants successfully capture like 80-90% of all things that they trap? They're a plant, and they have a success rate on par with Painted Dogs and Dragonflies.

  11. #1 is humans. we can kill anything and everything on earth. 100% success rate if you nuke everything.

  12. My cat Jessie has slowed down on hunts
    She killed almost all the rodents in our town
    And half of the birds
    And also 3 bats
    aaannnddd finally a frog

    Don't ask how did she got the bats
    Just don't

  13. Humans are the best hunters on the Earth. Humans hunt in packs and use tools. Recent humans don't hunt like they use to because of farming but back in the day they use to chase their pray over cliffs or use fire to herd them into traps.

  14. House cats / dogs are most successful hunters, their hunting efficient towards can food and dry food is over 200%. So their excellent hunting ability also cause obesity.

  15. I used to work at a seafood restaurant on the Gulf Coast and we had an osprey best the parking lot. We had to close several parking spots because they would just drop fish all over the place. We would watch them bring in fish non-stop.

  16. I'd like to thank skillshare for this video, I certainly enjoyed it but, I can't afford any paid subscriptions as my fixed income won't allow it.
    But Thank You though.

  17. Forgot to mention mankind in this video… Might not be the most "efficient" but they can kill off entire species! (including mankind)

  18. Neighbours cats are the bane of my life! They see cute fluffy animals, I see something that sh*ts in my flower beds, p*sses on almost everything and kills any bird that comes to the garden ?

  19. That Harbor Dolphin impressed me like watching someone at a hot dog eating contest eat 550 hotdogs in an hour but had to catch the hot dog first. Clap clap clap ? ?

  20. We have the power to clean the oceans and save the turtles but We gotta stop burning down the forest and throwing the fish of the sea to the seagulls in the dump.

  21. For context, housecats– the most prolific predator in the world, which kill around 2.4 billion birds and 12.3 billion mammals a year (according to estimates by scientists from the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute and the US Fish and Wildlife Service), only have about a 32% success rate according to studies.

  22. And i still see ppl throwing plastic on the ground everyday. Even tho many awereness things in my country happened. I wonder how it's like in other countries but here they don't seem to care.

  23. I live in an old apartment built in the 70s, random blotchy brown carpet included. My cat will somehow find tiny brown spiders walking around on brown carpet with ease.

  24. SciShow is honestly trash I've probably watched too videos and no one who makes these has any capacity for critical thinking. If a lion has a 25% chance to kill an animal that will sustain it for days, and a dragonfly has a 90% chance to kill another insect that will sustain it for a free hours, the lion is the more efficiant hunter. It's like your ability to look into anything deeper than surface level simply doesnt exist.

  25. If you buy one of those little toy drones, no bigger than a dragonfly, and practice in the yard every morning,,, you MIGHT find yourself flying WITH some dragonflies, , and you MIGHT find that the dragonflies chase and mimic the drone, as well as display their own acrobatics in celebration of experience of seeing the drone fly. However, they don't seem to understand propellers very well, and are likely to hit them, … One time I had a swarm of bees playing with a larger toy (like the nerf drone), and they survived, but flew constantly through the propellers, like a cloud of bees chasing into the propellers, being forced down (and banged on), and then flying back above the props to take the ride again,,, but I landed because i could see that the props were definately damaging a few of the bees, and the swarm didn't seem to figure it out that it's also dangerous. (bees,,, they're only days old). anyway, dragonflies love drones like little children do, . so do flies, and birds, (I taught birds that DON'T hover to hover, I wish I had THAT on camera),

  26. The tactics of the African Painted Dogs are fascinating. They seem to intrinsically know that it is a shorter distance across a circle than around it. So as a group, they are very good at selecting the oldest, youngest, or weakest member of a herd and separating them. This alone accounts for much of their success. Then once their intended target it separated from its herd, the dogs will break up into two groups. One group will chase the animal around a large circle, while the other group runs across the circle. When the first group chases the animal past them, the second group, now rested, takes up the chase while the first group goes back across the circle and waits. The second group now chases the animal around the circle until it reaches the first group, now rested, which then resumes the chase. This insures there is always fresh, relatively rested dogs chasing the animal until it is physically exhausted, and can then no longer either run nor fight. This allows the ~50 dogs to take down much larger prey. Once the prey has been secured, the animals call each other to bring the groups back together and allow them to consume the animal, often still alive, as quickly as possible to avoid having it stolen by larger predators, like lions and hyenas. They gorge themselves, then return to their den area where they regurgitate for the pups and the adults that are watching them. Dependence on regurgitation is common throughout canines and is the reason why your domesticated dogs eat vomit. It may seem gross, but it is necessary for survival of those too young, old, or injured to hunt in the wild, and has become encoded on the DNA of our domestic breeds from their wild ancestors.

  27. I feel like this mostly demonstrates that winning at hunting != winning at eating. Not to mention winning at mammals. Really not sure about the avian nor the insectoid utility functions so can't comment there 🙂

  28. people are the best hunters there are no animals that have escaped people from catching and the only reason its prey is getting alive is the purpose of the hunt for sport it's just left wherever is caught or to get a specific animal into particular place (like a cat from a forest into wheat storage to destroy mice)

  29. African Painted Dogs are like nature's way of demonstrating how good democracy is for civilization and survival. Kind of like how braindead conservatives are humanity's way of demonstrating how fascism is horrible for everyone and everything.

  30. Meanwhile, my lazy bearded dragon has a ~0% catch rate with her dubia roaches because she demands I hand feed her. Not to mention her ~25-50% catch rate for the veggies I prepped for her sitting motionless in her food bowl, as she relies almost entirely on her tongue to stick to the wet food. It's pretty funny, she'll just open her mouth and stick her tongue out to pick up her veggies, just like with her roaches, but because the veggies are often wet, they wont stick to her tongue and she just gives up until I hand feed her.

  31. I'm surprised by the fact that they didn't bring up that raptor's talons are so good at holding on to prey that they literally cannot let go of the fish at times. This is obviously really dangerous if they grab on to a fish turned out to be too big for them to carry. It's rare, but there are reports of bald eagles essentially drowning themselves like this, especially with ocean catches.

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